Basics of network cabling

Level: - Beginners
Platform: - Network devices, Rj-45 connectors
Keywords: - : Basics of a network cabling, color scheme of RJ-45 straight cables, cross cables, Ethernet port pinouts,
Author: - Surender Singh

There are many people who advance into their network careers and still don’t know the basics of a network cable. What lies inside the cable? Here we will be explaining the basics.
The most common cable type you will be exposed to is standard Ethernet. Ethernet connections use 4 wires (2 pairs) and most commonly run over 4 pair, Cat 5, unshielded twisted pair cables. They are terminated with RJ45 modular connectors.

The pairs on a Cat 5 cable are numbered:
Pair 1 blue
pair 2 orange
pair 3 green
pair 4 brown

Each pair in a CAT 5 cable consists of a solid colored wire (or solid color with white stripes) and a white wire with colored stripes.

The standard pinouts for Ethernet cables are outlined in the EIA/TIA 568A and 568B specifications. The correct pinout is as follows:

EIA/TIA 568A

 

 

EIA/TIA 568B

 

Pin 1

white/green

 

Pin 1

white/orange

Pin 2

green

 

Pin 2

orange

Pin 3

white/orange

 

Pin 3

white/green

Pin 4

blue

 

Pin 4

blue

Pin 5

white/blue

 

Pin 5

white/blue

Pin 6

orange

 

Pin 6

green

Pin 7

white/brown

 

Pin 7

white/brown

Pin 8

brown

 

Pin 8

brown

You can improvise your own cables as long as one pair uses pins 1 and 2 (transmit data), and a second pair uses pins 3 and 6 (receive data). The cable should be identical at both ends. To avoid mistakes, follow the cabling standards and keep the cable twists as close to the termination points as possible to avoid crosstalk.
The easiest way to remember how to make a crossover cable is that you need EIA/TIA 568A at one end and EIA/TIA 568B at the other.

The following link on cisco.com provides very good information on network cabling and the pinouts diagrams of many different cables. Some of the cable types that you look forward are:-

-console cables.
-Auxiliary cables.
-Auxiliary port to modem.
-Serial cables like EIA-530, EIA/TIA- 232, EIA/TIA-449, V.35, X.21, RS-366 ACE.
-Analog voice port pinouts.
-ISDN BRI port pinouts.

Cisco website link
Just browse the above url and have a strong grip on the fundamentals of network cabling.

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